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Technical Manual, 20th Edition (AABB)
 

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출판사 AABB
저자 Claudia S. Cohn, MD, PhD; Meghan Delaney, DO, MPH; Susan T. Johnson, MSTM, MT(ASCP)SBB; and Louis M. Katz, MD
출간일 2020/10
페이지 수 816
Illustrations  
ISBN 9781563953705, 1563953706
판본 20 판
커버 Hardcover
주문수량
List Price $ 265.00
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[ Preface ]

ON BEHALF OF THE EDITORS, AUthors, and many reviewers I am pleased to introduce the 20th edition of the AABB Technical Manual. The Technical Manual conveys the latest information in blood banking/transfusion medicine along with well-established material. Using the model developed by previous editorial teams, when possible we paired new authors with seasoned veterans to bring a fresh perspective to the content. This also allows for ontinuity
as new authors in the current edition move into the role of primary author for the next edition. I am grateful for the steady guidance and hard work of Associate Editors Meghan Delaney, DO, MPH; Sue Johnson, MSTM, MT(ASCP)SBB; and Louis Katz, MD. All of us were first-time editors of the Technical Manual and learned a great deal from AABB staff and the editors of past editions.

The Technical Manual’s excellence is ensured by a stringent peer-review process. Each chapter underwent an initial review by the editors for content and style, followed by reviews from numerous AABB committee members who provided focused expertise as well as comments on readability. Compliance experts then conducted a final check to make sure we provided the most up-to-date information on the standards, guidance, and regulations that help govern the activities readers engage in. These extra steps provide a high level of confidence that the Technical Manual is a reliable resource for our community.

The overall structure and content of the Technical Manual is adjusted periodically bysurvey responses and feedback from AABB membership. For the 19th edition several key measures were taken to focus the content and reduce redundancy. These measures were very successful and, as a result, few structural changes were necessary for this edition.

However, improvements in content continued unabated. Sue Johnson and the authors of the chapters on blood groups worked diligently to bring the book’s terminology for blood group antigens more closely in line with official ISBT nomenclature. In fact, their work is already being used as an exemplar for other AABB publications. Chapters addressing topics that have evolved significantly since publication of the 19th edition underwent major revision. These expanded updates include content on massive transfusion, patient blood management, molecular testing, and relevant transfusion-transmitted disease. Other key updates involving several chapters resulted from the April 2020 release of new federal regulations on donor deferrals and subsequent revision of the donor history questionnaire.

The Technical Manual was in the final stages of production when the COVID-19 pandemic swept across the world. Not surprisingly, the pandemic had an impact on the book. First, we considered adding material about disaster preparedness, blood shortages, and convalescent plasma. However, the information was changing so rapidly that we felt
pandemic-related content would be out of date by the time we went to press. Second, the final review meeting at the AABB office was converted to a virtual remote process. It
took longer, but I believe the results are equal in quality of outcome. The third impact also relates to remote working. Our community as a whole has developed and improved ways to benefit from access to online resources. Accordingly, the methods and appendices are now posted online, rather than loaded onto a USB flash card in a pocket adhered to the inside back cover. Readers who turn to the table of contents page for the methods will find the access code there. We hope that the pandemic will be resolved well before publication of the 21st edition, and that information on the virus, treatment, blood collection challenges, and lessons learned can be included in that edition.

It has been a privilege to work with the talented and dedicated staff at AABB and the transfusion medicine/blood banking community that helped to produce this edition. On behalf of the editors, authors, and reviewers we hope you enjoy using the 20th edition of the Technical Manual and find it a useful reference tool.


Claudia S. Cohn, MD, PhD
Editor in Chief

 
 
 
Preface                                   ix


Q U A L I T Y A N D R E L A T E D I S S U E S
1. Quality Management Systems: Principles and Practice
   Background   1
   Concepts in Quality   2
   Quality Management Systems Approach   4
   Evaluation of the Quality Management System   5
   The Quality Management System in Practice   5
   Key Points   23
   References   24
Appendix 1-1. Glossary of Commonly Used Quality Terms   26
Appendix 1-2. Code of Federal Regulations Quality-Related References   28
Appendix 1-3. Suggested Quality Control Performance Intervals for Equipment and Reagents   29

2. Facilities, Work Environment, and Safety
   Safety Program   35
   Fire Prevention   39
   Electrical Safety   40
   Biosafety   41
   Chemical Safety   48
   Radiation Safety   53
   Shipping Hazardous Materials   56
   General Waste Management   56
   Key Points   57
   References   57
Appendix 2-1. Safety Regulations and Recommendations Applicable to Health-Care Settings   61
Appendix 2-2. General Guidance for Safe Work Practices, Personal Protective Equipment, and Engineering Controls   63
Appendix 2-3. Biosafety Level 2 Precautions   66
Appendix 2-4. Sample List of Hazardous Chemicals That May Be Encountered in a Blood Bank   67
Appendix 2-5. Chemical Categories and How to Work Safely with Them   69
Appendix 2-6. Incidental Spill Response   71
Appendix 2-7. Managing Hazardous Chemical Spills   74

3. Regulatory Considerations in Transfusion Medicine and Cellular Therapies
   FDA Oversight of Blood Establishments   78
   Medical Laboratory Laws and Regulations   84
   Local Laws, Hospital Regulations, and Accreditation   85
   Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/PS)   86
   Immune Effector Cells   89
   Key Points   90
   References   90

4. National Hemovigilance: The Current State
   International Hemovigilance   96
   US Hemovigilance   97
   Recipient Hemovigilance in the United States   100
   Blood Donor Hemovigilance in the United States   103
   Next Steps in US Hemovigilance   106
   Key Points   112
   References   113
Appendix 4-1. Protocol for Hospital Reporting Adverse Events to Blood Suppliers   116
Appendix 4-2. Severity Grading Tool for Blood Donor Adverse Events   124


B L O O D C O L L E C T I O N A N D T E S T I N G
5. Allogeneic and Autologous Blood Donor Selection
   Overview of Blood Donor Screening   127
   Selection of Allogeneic Blood Donors   128
   Abbreviated DHQ for Frequent Donors   132
   Blood-Center-Defined Donor Eligibility Criteria   133
   Recipient-Specific “Designated” or “Directed” Blood Donation   135
   Key Points   137
   References   137

6. Whole Blood and Apheresis Collection of Blood Components Intended for Transfusion
   Donor Preparation and Care   141
   Blood Collection   145
   Blood Component Storage   153
   Postcollection Processing/Blood Component Modification   158
   Quarantine of Blood Components   164
   Labeling of Blood Components   164
   Key Points   165
   References   166

7. Infectious Disease Screening
   Historical Overview of Blood Donor Screening   173
   Donor Screening Tests   177
   Residual Infectious Risks of Transfusion   196
   Screening for Specific Agents   199
   Pathogen Inactivation Technology   215
   Summary   217
   Key Points   217
   References   218


B L O O D G R O U P S
8. Molecular Biology and Immunology in Transfusion Medicine
   Analysis of DNA   229
   Analysis of Protein   238
   Basic Immunology   243
   Key Points   251
   References   251

9. Blood Group Genetics
   Genomic Organization and Gene Regulation   256
   Genetic Variation   262
   Inheritance of Genetic Traits   266
   Structural Variation   270
   Chimerism   273
   Gene Position Effects   274
   Genetic Modifiers of Blood Group Antigen Expression   274
   Population Genetics   275
   Relationship Testing   278
   Blood Group Gene Mapping   279
   Gene, Protein, and Blood Group Terminology   280
   Blood Group Genomics   281
   Summary   291
   Key Points   292
   References   293

10. ABO and Other Carbohydrate Blood Group Systems
   The ABO system (001)   297
   The H System (018)   310
   The LE System (007)   313
   I and i Antigens of the I Blood Group System (027) and I Blood Group Collection   315
   P1PK (003) and GLOB (028) Blood Group Systems   318
   The FORS Blood Group System (031)   323
   The SID Blood Group System (038)   323
   Key Points   323
   References   324

11. The Rh System
   Historical Perspective   329
   Terminology   332
   Rh Locus   333
   RHD Genotype   334
   Antigens   337
   Rh Genotyping   346
   Rh Syndrome and the RhAG (030) Blood Group System   347
   Antibodies to Rh Blood Group System Antigens   347
   Technical Considerations for Rh Typing   348
   Key Points   349
   References   350

12. Other Blood Group Systems and Antigens
   The MNS System (002)   359
   The LU System (005)   363
   The KEL (006) and Xk (019) Systems   364
   The FY System (008)   368
   The JK System (009)   370
   The DI System (010)   372
   The YT System (011)   373
   The XG System (012)   374
   The SC System (013)   374
   The DO System (014)   374
   The CO System (015)   375
   The LW System (016)   375
   The CH/RG System (017)   377
   The GE System (020)   377
   The CROM System (021)   378
   The KN System (022)   378
   The IN System (023)   379
   The OK System (024)   379
   The RAPH System (025)   379
   The JMH System (026)   379
   The GIL System (029)   380
   The RHAG System (030)   380
   The JR System (032)   380
   The LAN System (033)   380
   The VEL System (034)   381
   The CD59 System (035)   381
   The AUG System (036)   381
   The KANNO System (037)   382
   The SID System (038)   382
   The CTL2 System (039)   382
   Antigens that Do Not Yet Belong to a Blood Group System   382
   Erythroid Phenotypes Caused by Mutations in Transcription Factor Genes   384
   Key Points   384
   References   385

13. Identification of Antibodies to Red Cell Antigens
   Basic Concepts in Red Cell Antigen Expression   390
   Initial Antibody Identification Consideration   391
   Basic Antibody Identification   394
   Complex Antibody Identification   402
   Selected Procedures   414
   Considerations Following Antibody Identification   421
   Immunohematology Reference Laboratories   424
   Key Points   424
   References   425
   Suggested Readings   428

14. The Positive Direct Antiglobulin Test and Immune-Mediated Hemolysis
   The DAT   430
   Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia   434
   Drug-Induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia   445
   Key Points   449
   References   449
Appendix 14-1. Drugs Associated with Immune Hemolytic Anemia   452

15. Platelet and Granulocyte Antigens and AntibodiesPlatelet Antigens and Antibodies
   Granulocyte Antigens and Antibodies   469
   Key Points   473
   References   473

16. The HLA System
   Biochemistry, Tissue Distribution, and Structure   479
   Genetics of the MHC   484
   HLA Typing   488
   Other Non-HLA Histocompatibility Determinants   489
   Crossmatching and Detection of HLA Antibodies   490
   The HLA System and Transfusion   491
   HLA Testing and Transplantation   493
   Other Clinically Significant Aspects of HLA   495
   Clinical Consultation in HLA   497
   Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Histocompatibility   498
   Future Directions   498
   Summary   499
   Key Points   499
   References   499


E S S E N T I A L S O F T R A N S F U S I O N P R A C T I C E
17. Transfusion-Service-Related Activities: Pretransfusion Testing and Storage, Monitoring, Processing, Distribution, and Inventory Management of Blood Components
   Samples and Requests   503
   Pretransfusion Testing of Recipient Blood   504
   Blood and Blood Component Storage and Monitoring   509
   Pretransfusion Processing   518
   Distribution   522
   Issuing of Components   523
   Inventory Management   527
   Key Points   529
   References   530
Appendix 17-1. Sources of False-Positive Results in Antiglobulin Testing   533
Appendix 17-2. Sources of False-Negative Results in Antiglobulin Testing   534
Appendix 17-3. Causes of Positive Pretransfusion Test Results   535

18. Administration of Blood Components
   Events and Considerations Before Dispensing Components   537
   Blood Component Transportation and Dispensing   542
   Blood Administration   543
   Documentation of the Transfusion   547
   Unique Transfusion Settings   548
   Conclusion   549
   Key Points   549
   References   550

19. Hemotherapy Decisions and Their Outcomes
   Red Blood Cell Transfusion   553
   Platelet Transfusion   561
   Plasma Transfusion   567
   Cryoprecipitate Transfusion   569
   Granulocyte Transfusion   570
   Massive Transfusion Protocols   571
   Key Points   573
   References   573

20. Patient Blood Management
   Definition and Scope of Patient Blood Management   583
   Resources to Support a PBM Program   584
   Patient Blood Management Standards and Certification   585
   Methods of Patient Blood Management   585
   Data Collection   600
   Extremes of Transfusion   605
   Summary   606
   Key Points   607
   References   607

21. Approaches to Blood Utilization Auditing
   The Auditing Process   614
   Defining Audit Criteria   615
   Types of Blood Utilization Review   617
   Blood Utilization Review of Transfusions to High-Risk Patients   620
   The Role of a Computerized Provider Order Entry System in Blood Utilization Review   620
   Use of “Big Data” to Assess Performance and Progress Measures in Transfusion Medicine   621
   Key Points   623
   References   624

22. Noninfectious Complications of Blood Transfusion
   Hemovigilance   627
   Recognition and Evaluation of a Suspected Transfusion Reaction   627
   Acute or Immediate Transfusion Reactions   634
   Delayed Transfusion Reactions   648
   Fatality Reporting Requirements   652
   Key Points   653
   References   653


S P E C I A L P A T I E N T S A N D S I T U A T I O N S
23. Perinatal Issues in Transfusion Practice
   Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn   659
   Pregnancy-Related Thrombocytopenia   665
   Key Points   668
   References   668

24. Neonatal and Pediatric Transfusion Practice
   Hematopoiesis, Coagulation, and Physiology   673
   RBC Transfusion in Neonates   675
   RBC Transfusion in Infants Older than 4 Months and Children   682
   Platelet Transfusion in Neonates and Children   685
   Plasma and Cryoprecipitate Transfusion in Neonates and Children   687
   Granulocyte Transfusion in Neonates and Children   688
   Other Considerations Common to Transfusion of Neonates and Children   689
   Adverse Effects and Prevention   694
   Key Points   695
   References   696

25. Therapeutic Apheresis
   General Principles   705
   Device Modalities   706
   Patient Evaluation and Management   707
   Vascular Access   709
   Anticoagulation   711
   Adverse Effects   711
   Pediatric Apheresis   713
   Therapeutic Apheresis Indications   713
   Therapeutic Apheresis Procedure Documentation, Payment, and Provider Credentialing   727
   Key Points   729
   References   730

26. The Collection and Processing of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells
   Clinical Utility   737
   Histocompatibility, Donor Type, and Graft Source   741
   HPC Collection   743
   Processing Human Progenitor Cells   748
   Specialized Cell-Processing Methods   750
   Cryopreservation   751
   Quality Control   752
   Shipping and Transporting HPC Cellular Products   754
   Patient Care   754
   Regulatory and Accreditation Considerations   756
   Conclusion   757
   Key Points   757
   References   758

27. Transfusion Support for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
   ABO Compatibility for Blood Component Selection Following HSCT   768
   Blood Component Support for HSCT Patients   772
   Pediatric Considerations   773
   Key Points   774
   References   774

28. Human Tissue Allografts and the Hospital Transfusion Service
   Tissue Donation and Transplantation   777
   Federal Regulations, State Laws, and Professional Standards   782
   Hospital Tissue Services   784
   Key Points   789
   References   790


Index   793
 
 
 
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